In English, we already have known the type of verbs (Present, Past, and Future from). In Korean, there are three type of verbs, too. But, it is not according to the tenses, but according to last vowel.
Every verb that has the last vowel “a” and “o”.
Ga-da (가다) = to go
O-da (오다) = to come
Sal-da (살다) = to live(In this case, the particle “-da” has the same function as “to” infinitive in English.)
Verb type 2:
Every verb that has the last vowel besid “a”, “o”, and “ha”.
Meog-da (먹다) = to eat
Masi-da (마시다) = to drink
Ju-da = to give
Verb type 3:
Every verb that has the last vowel “ha”.
Gongbuha-da (공부하다)= to learn
Sarangha-da (사랑하다)= to love
Jeonhwaha-da (전화하다) = to call
We have learned that in the Korean language there are three types of verbs. Well, we will discuss the first form of “Present Tense” from the verb Type 1. To state something is happening, or frequent (habit), then we declare it as a “Present Tense”. Well, in Korean, we simply replace the infinitive “-da” become “-ayo”.
Ga-da (to go) [가다) => Gayo (is going) [가요]
Ja-da (to sleep) [자다] => Jayo (is sleeping) [자요]Explanation:
If the word is terminated by the letter “a”, then stay insert “-yo” only. Remember, the particle “-da” is an infinitive verb Korean.
O-da (to come) [오다] => Wayo (is coming) [와요]
Bo-da (to see) [보댜] => Bwayo (is seeing) [봐요]
If the word ends in “o”, then the format changed to “wa”, followed by the particle “-yo”
Sal-da (to live) [살다] => Sarayo (is living) [살아요]
Mat-da (to be correct) [맞다] => Majayo (is correcting) [맞아요]
In this case, the basic word “Sal”, the last vowel is “a,” as well as “Mat”. Thus, this verb includes the type 1. Well, the word “Sal” if it is written in Korean script is 살 (if read literally, then it becomes Sar). Remember, in Korean, the words “L” and “R” are the same. But the placement is different. “L” is used only at the end of a syllable when followed by a consonant and the next consonant. While the “R” is used at the beginning of syllables and syllables in the middle, ollowed by a subsequent vowel. Thus, the “L” in the word “Sal” changed to “Sar” because it was followed by the letter “a” which comes from the particle “-let”
For the word “Matda”, written in Hangeul 맞 (if read literally, then it becomes Maj). However, the letter “J” in Korean, if it is located at the end of the syllable, it will change the sound so “T” if the next letter is a consonant, as in the word “Mat-da”. But the sound will change to “A” again if the next letter is a vowel, as in the word “Majayo”.
In the English, to express existence, we generally we use the preposition “in” and “to”. Well, in Korean, “in” and “to” is one word, the “e”. Let us look at an example.
Gayo = is going, (remember the previous lesson on Simple Present Tense to verb Type 1)
Well, the particle “e” (에) added (be affixed) to the end of the adverb of place.
Coming home => Jib-e Wayo (집 에 와요)
To where are [you] going? => Eodi-e gayo. (어디에 가요)
Jip (집) = home
eodi (어디) = (to) where
Wayo (와요) = is coming
Well, about why the word “Jip” turned into “Jib”, it has been discussed before. There are some words in Korean, which if followed by a consonant in the next letter, then it will change the function. However, if followed by the vocals on the next letter, then it will return to its original shape.
As the word “Jip”, the Hangeul writing 집 (which if you read his words are Jib).