BELAJAR BAHASA KOREA: PART 8

“SUKA”

Kata kerja “Jo-da” (좋다) dan “Johaha-da” (좋아하다) terkadang menyebabkan kekeliruan. Pasalnya, dalam kalimat, kedua kata ini nyaris sama penulisannya. “Jo-da” merupakan kata kerja yang menyatakan “bagus”. Dan kata kerja “Johaha-da” menyatakan “suka”.

Contoh:

This is good => I geosi johayo (이 것이 좋아요)

I like this thing => I geoseul johahaeyo (이 것을 좋아해요)

Lihat, kedua kalimat di atas nyaris sama dalam bahasa Korea-nya. Oleh sebab itu, kita harus memperhatikannya dengan baik.

Contoh lainnya:

Flowers are good.

= Kkot johayo (꽃 좋아요)

I like flowers.

= Kkot johahaeyo (꽃 좋아해요)

Do you like these socks?

= I yangmareul johahaeyo? (이 양마를 좋아해요?)

Are these socks good?

= I yangmareul johayo? (이 양마를 좋아요?)

(Sumber – https://hehemahita.wordpress.com)

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“PLEASE DO …… FOR ME”

Maksud dari pembahasan kita kali ini adalah meminta seseorang untuk melakukan seseuatu untuk kita. Kita cukup menggunakan pola:

Kata kerja tipe 1: Kata kerja + a + juseyo

Contoh:

Please cut it for me!

= Kkakk-a-juseyo (깎아주세요)

Kkakk-da = to cut

Kata kerja tipe 2: Kata kerja + eo + juseyoContoh:

Please read it for me!

= Ilg-eo-juseyo (읽어주세요)

Il-da = to read

Kata kerja tipe 3: Kata kerja + hae + juseyo

Please love me!

= Saranghae-juseyo (사랑해주세요)

Sarangha-da = to love

CONTOH LAIN:

Please buy that thing for me.

= Geu geos-eul sa-juseyo (그 것을 사주세요)

Please cut the price a little.

= Gabs-eul jogeum kkakk-a-juseyo (값을 조금 깎아주세요)

Please ring!

= Cheonhwahae-juseyo (천화해주세요)

Please read this book for me!

= I chaeg-eul ilg-eo-juseyo (이 책을 읽어주세요)

(Sumber – https://hehemahita.wordpress.com)

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“VERB -> NOUN”

Partikel “-m” (ㅁ) atau “-eum” (음) dapat mengubah kata sifat dan kata kerja menjadi kata benda. Namun tidak semua bisa diubah dengan cara seperti ini, terutama jika kata tersebut berasal dari HANJA (Hanja adalah tulisan Korea yang diadaptasi dari China), karena kata tersebut sudah memiliki kata benda tersendiri tanpa disisipkan partikel di atas.

Aturan pertama:

Jika kata tersebut tidak berakhiran konsonan, maka cukup sisipkan partikel “-m”.

Contoh:

Kata sifat: Apeuda (아프다) = sakit

Maka kata bendanya menjadi: Apeu-m (아픔)

Aturan kedua:

Jika kata tersebut berakhiran konsonan, maka kita menyisipkan partikel “-eum”.

Contoh:

Kata sifat: Juk-ta (죽다) = mati

Maka kata bendanya menjadi: Jug-eum (죽음) = kematian

Contoh lain:

Gippeu-da (기쁘다) = to be happy

-> Gippeu-m (기쁨) = happiness

Kku-da (꾸다) = dreaming

-> Kku-m (꿈) = dream

Dandanha-da (단단하다) = sulit

-> Dandanha-m (단단함) = kesulitan

Dop-ta (돕다) = membantu

-> Dou-m (도움) = bantuan

Ssau-da (싸우다 ) = berkelahi

-> Ssau-m (싸움) = perkelahian

Ja-da (자다) = to sleep

-> Ja-m (잠) = sleep

Chu-da (추다 ) = menari

-> Chu-m (춤) = tarian

Jji-da (찌다) = mengukus

-> Jji-m (찜 ) = kukusan

Aswip-ta (아쉽다) = sial

-> Aswiu-m (아쉬움) = kesialan

Moi-da (모이다) = bertemu

-> Moi-m (모임) = pertemuan

Neukki-da (누끼다) = merasakan

-> Neukki-m (느낌) = perasaan

Alli-da (알리다) = memberitahu

-> Alli-m (알림) = pemberitahuan

Geurip-ta (그립다) = rindu

-> Geuriu-m (그리움) = kerinduan

Geot-ta (걷다) = melangkah

-> Geor-eum (걸음) = langkah

Jol-da (졸다) = mengantuk

-> Jor-eum (졸음) = kantuk

Jeol-da (젊다) =  muda

-> Jeoreum (젊음) = pemuda

(Sumber – https://hehemahita.wordpress.com)

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“ADVERB”

Umumnya, adjective dalam bahasa Korea bisa berubah menjadi adverb dengan menyisipkan partikel “-ge” (게). Namun, tidak semua adjective bisa berlaku demikian, terutama yang memiliki akhiran “-hi” (히) dan “-ro” (로).

1. Adjective yang bisa disisipkan partikel “-ge”.

Gabyeop-ta (가볍다) = to be light

-> Gabyeop-ke (가볍게) = lightly

Nappeuge (나쁘게) = to be bad

-> Nappeuge (나쁘게) = bad

Neut-ta (늦다) = to be late

-> Neut-ke (늦게) = late

Mashit-ta (맛있다) = to be delicious

-> Mashit-ke (맛있게) = deliciuos

Mureha-da (무례하다) = to be rude

-> Mureha-ge (무례하게) = rudely

Bappeu-da (바쁘다) = to be busy

-> Bappeu-ge (바쁘게) = busy

Ssa-da (싸다) = to be cheap

-> Ssa-ge (싸게) = cheaply

Areumdap-ta (아름답다) = to be beautiful

-> Areumdap-ke (아름답게) = beautifully

Anjeonha-da (안전하다) = to be safe

-> Anjeonha-ge (안전하게) = safely

Eoryeop-ta (어렵다) = to be difficult

-> Eoryeop-ke (어렵게) = difficultly

Ippeu-da (이쁘다) = to be pretty

-> Ippeu-ge (이쁘게) = pretty

Yonggi it-ta (용기 있다) = to be brave

-> Yonggi it-ke (용기 있게) = bravely

Wihomha-da (위홈하다) = to be dangerous

-> Wihomha-ge (위홈하게) = dangerously

Jayeonseureop-ta (자연스럽다) = to be natural

-> Jayeonseureop-ke (자연스럽게) = naturally

Jayurop-ta (자유롭다) = to be free

-> Jayurop-ke (자유롭게) = freely

Jaemi it-ta (재미 있다) = to be fun

-> Jaemi it-ke (재미 있게) = fun

Joyongha-da (조용하다) = to be quiet

-> Joyongha-ge (조용하게) = quietly

Jeulgeop-ta (즐겁다) = to be pleasant

-> Jeulgeop-ke (즐겁게) = pleasantly

Keu-da (크다) = to be large

-> Keu-ge (크게) = largely

Pyeonriha-da (편리하다) = to be convenient

-> Pyeonriha-ge (편리하게) = conveniently

Pyeonha-da (편하다) = to be comfortable

-> Pyeonha-ge (편하게) = comfortably

Haengbokha-da (행복하다) = to be happy

-> Haengbokha-ge (행복하게) = happily

2. Adverb yang berakhiran “-hi”.

Adverb: Daedan-hi (대단히) = greatly, highly, extremely

Adjective: Daedanha-da (대단하다) = to be great

Adverb: Soljik-hi (솔직히) = honestly, frankly

Adjective: Soljikha-da (솔직하다) = to be honest

Adverb: Wanjeon-hi (완전히) = completely, fully, perfectly

Adjective: Wanjeonha-da (완전하다) = to be complete

Adverb: Uyeon-hi (우연히) = on accident, by chance

Adjective: Uyeonha-da (우연하다) = accidental

Adverb: Jase-hi (자세히) = in detail

Adjective: Jaseha-da (자세하다) = detail

Adverb: Teuk-hi (특히) = especially

Adjective: Teukha-da (특하다) = special

Adverb: Hwaksil-hi (확실히) = certainly

Adjective: Hwaksilha-da (화실하다) = certain

3. Adverb yang berakhiran “-euro”

Kadang ditambahkan partikel “-jeog-” tepat sebelum partikel “-euro”.

Noun/Derivative: Jikjeop (직접) = person

Adverb: Jikjeob-euro (직접으로) = in person

Noun/Derivative: Ilban (일반) = general

Adverb: Ilban-jeog-euro (일반적으로) = generally

Noun/Derivative: Jadong (자동) = automatic

Adverb: Jadong-euro (자동으로) = automatically

Noun/Derivative: Gongsik (공식) = formal

Adverb: Gongsik-jeog-euro (공식적으로) = formally

Noun/Derivative: Bigongsik (비공식) = informal

Adverb: Bigongsik-jeog-euro (비공식적으로) = informally

Noun/Derivative: Hyeoptong (협동) = cooperative

Adverb: Hyeoptong-jeog-euro (협동적으로) = cooperatively

Noun/Derivative: Jugi (주기) = regular

Adverb: Jugi-jeog-euro (주기적으로) = regularly

Noun/Derivative: Jangki (장기) = long term

Adverb: Jangki-jeog-euro (장기적으로) = in the long term

Noun/Derivative: Dangi (단기) = short term

Adverb: Dangi-jeog-euro (단기적으로) = in the short term

Noun/Derivative: Sangsik (상식) = common sense

Adverb: Sangsik-jeog-euro (상식적으로) = using common sense

Noun/Derivative: Sajeok (사적) = personal

Adverb: Sajeog-euro (사적으로) = personally

Noun/Derivative: Jeokkeuk (적극) = enthusiast

Adverb: Jeokkeuk-jeog-euro (적극적으로) = enthusiastically

Noun/Derivative: Hoekki (획기) = innovative

Adverb: Hoekki-jeog-euro (획기적으로) = innovatively

Noun/Derivative: Geuk (극) = drama

Adverb: Geuk-jeog-euro (극적으로) = dramatically

Noun/Derivative: Gijeok (기적) = miracle

Adverb: Gijeok-jeog-euro (기적적으로) = miraculously

Noun/Derivative: Jeonjeok (전적) = complete

Adverb: Jeonjeog-euro (전적으로) = completely

Noun/Derivative: Sangda (상다) = relativity

Adverb: Sangda-jeog-euro (상다적으로) = relatively

Noun/Derivative: Jamjeong (잠정) = tentative

Adverb: Jamjeong-jeog-euro (잠정적으로) = tentatively

Noun/Derivative: Mulli (물리) = physics

Adverb: Mulli-jeog-euro (물리적으로) = physically

Noun/Derivative: Simri (심리) = psychology

Adverb: Simri-jeog-euro (심리적으로) = psychologically

Noun/Derivative: Jiljeok (질적) = qualitative

Adverb: Jiljeog-euro (질적으로) = qualitatively

Noun/Derivative: Gojil (고질) = chronic

Adverb: Gojil-jeog-euro (고질적으로) = chronically

Noun/Derivative: Gibun (기분) = fundamental

Adverb: Gibun-jeog-euro (기분적으루) = fundamentally

Noun/Derivative: Bonneung (본능) = instinct

Adverb: Bonneung-jeog-euro (본능적으로) = instinctively

Noun/Derivative: Sudong (수동) = manual

Adverb: Sudong-euro (수동으로) = manually

Noun/Derivative: Uido (의도) = intention

Adverb: Uido-jeog-euro (의도적으로) = intentionally

Noun/Derivative: Eokji (억지) = force

Adverb: Eokji-ro (억지로) = forcibly

Noun/Derivative: Guchejeok (구체적) = detailed

Adverb: Guchejeog-euro (구체적으로) = detailly

4. Jenis lainnya.

Eopsi (없이) = without

Teullim eopsi (틀림 없이) = secara harfia berarti “tanpa kesalahan”, namun sebenarnya “tidak masalah”, atau bahasa Inggris-nya “no matter what”

Ppalli (빨리) = quickly

-> Ppareun (빠른) = quick

Iljjik (일찍) = early

Gachi (같이) = with, together

Gateun (같은) = with, together

Jika orang memiliki pemikiran yang umum, mereka biasanya bersama-sama. Itulah sebabnya sering disebutkan “uri” yang berarti “kami” (karena bersama-sama). Walau sesungguhnya yang dimaksud adalah kepunyaan seseorang.

Misalnya, A dan B bersahabat. Beda orangtua. Tapi A sering mengatakan ayah B dengan sebutan “Uri appa” yang berarti “ayah kami”. Padahal seharusnya “Neoui appa” yang berarti “ayahmu”.

Ttaro (따로) = separately

Berasal dari kata Dareun (다른) = different

Gipi (깊이) = deeply

Gipeun (깊은) = deep

Gapjagi (갑자기) = suddenly

Gapjaksireon (갑작스런) = sudden

Kkok (꼭) = for sure

Bandeusi (반드시) = at all cost, no matter what

Botong (보통) = usually

Jeonhyeo (전혀) = never

Maennal (맨날) = every day

Jaju (자주) = more than often; more repetive.

Jakku (자꾸) = continously

“Jakku” umumnya berkaitan dengan obsesi.

Misalnya, “Jakku ni saenggagina” (자꾸 니 생각이나)

= I can’t stop thinking about you.

Gakkeum (가끔) = less than sometimes; less repetive.

Ilbureo (일부러) = on purpose, deliberately

Hamburo (함부로) = carelessly, mindlessly

(Sumber – https://hehemahita.wordpress.com)

PERHATIAN!!!
Jika hendak mengcopy-paste bahan pembelajaran bahasa Korea dari blog ini, mohon disertakan sumbernya dari KOREAN NEWSTAINMENT CORNER. Karena semua pembelajaran yang aku bagi di sini adalah hasil ketikan sendiri dan bukan hasil copy paste dari situs mana pun. Jadi postingan ini adalah murni tulisan saya sendiri. (Juan Tobing)

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2 Tanggapan to “BELAJAR BAHASA KOREA: PART 8”

  1. Ghy S HyunHwa Says:

    admin kosa katanya jangan dlam inggris donk, gak ngerti 😦


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